Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Spinacia oleracea
G2-like Family
Species TF ID Description
Sp_010400_zpzr.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_016700_rygs.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_024760_amgu.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_029660_auco.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_030140_qjuy.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_039410_rjun.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_039410_rjun.t2G2-like family protein
Sp_044360_nduj.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_054190_wopx.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_058520_xkwc.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_058520_xkwc.t2G2-like family protein
Sp_063520_oicx.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_075560_ojfu.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_075720_wnni.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_083350_yipo.t2G2-like family protein
Sp_085980_jdts.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_090510_fysy.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_090510_fysy.t2G2-like family protein
Sp_097980_epxn.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_097980_epxn.t2G2-like family protein
Sp_097980_epxn.t3G2-like family protein
Sp_102240_rhew.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_104020_dmho.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_117570_tude.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_124250_yknj.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_135600_rufh.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_142010_qasr.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_143000_jpfy.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_155270_iufk.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_163340_tswk.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_195030_udyz.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_203360_nmyr.t1G2-like family protein
Sp_204130_pgzp.t1G2-like family protein
G2-like Family Introduction

The GLK proteins are members of the recently categorized GARP superfamily of transcription factors (Riechmann et al., 2000) defined by G2 in maize; the Arabidopsis RESPONSE REGULATOR-B (ARR-B) proteins (Imamura et al., 1999); and the PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE1 (PSR1) protein of Chlamydomonas (Wykoff et al., 1999). In the case of G2, three of the four defining features of most transcription factors have been verified experimentally in heterologous systems. G2 is nuclearlocalized (Hall et al., 1998), is able to transactivate reporter gene expression, and can both homo-dimerize and heterodimerize with ZmGLK1 (Rossini et al., 2001). DNA-binding activity of GLK proteins has yet to be demonstrated,however, the putative DNA-binding domain is highly conserved with domains in other GARP proteins such as ARR1 and ARR2 (Riechmann et al., 2000). Notably, ARR1 and ARR2 have been shown to bind DNA (Sakai et al.,2000), thus it is likely that GLK proteins act as transcriptional regulators of chloroplast development.

The GLK proteins are members of the GARP superfamily of transcription factors, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that the maize, rice and Arabidopsis GLK gene pairs comprise a distinct group within the GARP superfamily. Further phylogenetic analysis suggests that the gene pairs arose through separate duplication events in the monocot and dicot lineages. As in rice, AtGLK1 and AtGLK2 are expressed in partially overlapping domains in photosynthetic tissue. GLK genes therefore regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species.

Fitter DW, Martin DJ, Copley MJ, Scotland RW, Langdale JA.
GLK gene pairs regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species.
Plant J. 2002 Sep;31(6):713-27.
PMID: 12220263